SPACE FRAME ROOF
A Space Frame or Space Structure is a truss-like, light weight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space Frame usually utilize a multidirectional span....
SPACE FRAME ROOF
A Space Frame or Space Structure is a truss-like, light weight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space Frame usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish long spans with few supports. They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the triangular frame flexing loads (bending movements) are being transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of each strut.
Space Frame Structure are generally defined as those that exceed 12 m in span. Space Frame can create flexible, column-free internal spaces and can reduce substructure costs and construction times. They are commonly found in a wide range of building types such as factories, warehouses, agricultural buildings, hangars, large shops, public halls, gymnasiums and arenas. Their primary functions are, similar to normal roofs, typically, protecting against the weather, restricting the spread of fire, providing sound and thermal insulation and so on. However, as they may offer the only structural system other than the perimeter walls, they may also have to provide support for building services, access routes, lifting equipment, lighting and such so on.
AdvantagesLight-weight They are light, structurally efficient and use materials optimally. It can be designed in such a way that the total weight comes between 15 to 20kg/m2
Cost Effective One of the greatest advantages of using these frames is that it is comparatively cost effective. The computer aided designs can be used for industrial purposes too.
Rigidity and stiffness They posses great rigidity and stiffness for a given span/depth ratio and hence are able to resist large concentrated and unsymmetrical loading. Local overloading can be taken care by built-in reserve strength. They do not collapse locally.
Easy to Expand and demount They are easily expandable and demountable with the flexibility of placing supports at various locations. Supports can be removed or relocated without endangering the overall structural stability.
Accuracy Another essential feature of using these frames is that there is a high degree of accuracy in the process of designing these frames.
Regulations These steel frames are designed to perfection to meet the standard regulations. As a result it is stable and tensile compared to the other types of frames used for construction purposes.
Resistant to Termites It is also resistant to termites and other insects which tend to destroy the structures of a building.
Resistant to Fire Another added advantage of these frames is that it is resistant to fire.
Less Heat Transfer High reflective value coating help you save energy & money
High Load Bearing Two stiffening ribs between the pitch allow better load bearing & section properties.
Flexible It is one of the most flexible and sturdy construction materials used for constructing commercial buildings and residential properties.
Eco-Friendly The components of these structures are 100 % recyclable. Therefore it is known to be eco-friendly.
Low Maintenance Cost It includes low maintenance cost and therefore it is widely used for most of the construction purposes these days.
Versatile It can be used for constructing various buildings which include residential properties, garages, factories, attics, sheds and so forth.
Long Span Roof Forms
Portal framePortal frames are a type of structural frame, that, in their simplest form, are characterised by a beam (or rafter) supported at either end by columns, however, the joints between the beam and columns are 'rigid' so that the bending moment in the beam is transferred to the columns. This means that the beam can be reduced in sectional size and can span large distances. Typically, the joint between the beam and the columns is made 'rigid' by the addition of a haunch, bracket, or by a deepening of the section at the joints. Portal frames are generally fabricated from steel, reinforced precast concrete, or laminated timber sometimes referred to as 'glulam'.
Pitched TrussPitched trusses are triangulated plane frames spaced at suitable centres. To prevent spreading, the rafters, which form the top edge of the truss are connected at their feet by a tie member. Bracing is provided within the basic triangle by using struts and ties. Purlins are fixed between the trusses to which roof coverings can be attached. Pitched trusses allow for good rainwater run off, reasonable daylight spreads from roof lights, and high roof volume due to the triangulated format.
They are often made from steel sections, connected together with bolts or by welding to shaped plates called gussets. Steel truss members are usually angle sections since they are economic and accept both tensile and compressive stresses. Alternatively, timber members may be used, joined with bolts and timber connectors
Saw-tooth roofSaw-tooth roofs comprise a series of ridges, with one pitch much steeper than the other – similar in profile to the teeth of a saw. They allow a pitched roof to be constructed over a large span without creating a very high apex. The steeper surfaces often face north and are glazed to admit natural light into a deep plan building or factory, hence they are also known as 'north light roofs'.
They were historically used in industrial and manufacturing buildings before electric lightwas introduced and when daylight strategies were essential. Although these went into decline with the advent of artificial lighting, architects and designers have begun to reintroduce them because of their environmental efficiency and the fact that their shape offers good potential for solar panel installation.
Space deckThis is a modular structural roofing system based on a simple pyramidal unit typically fabricated using tubular diagonals welded to a forming tray and apex boss. Single span designs can provide large clear spans of up to 22 m, while two-way span designs can provide up to 33 m. The component parts can be easily transported to site and assembled into beams, the whole space deck being constructed at ground level before being hoisted into position on top of perimeter supports. Any lightweight structural decking is appropriate as a roof covering. Rooflights can also be mounted directly onto the square top space deck units.
Fabric structuresArchitectural fabrics such as PTFE glass and PVC polyester are extremely strong in tension, and can span very large areas with the minimum of material. They can be pushed into tension by supporting structures, pulled by structural cables, or inflated by air pressure. They are generally translucent, and so provide good natural daylight.
Monitor roofsA monitor roof is a flat roof with glazed portions that are raised, called 'monitors'. They allow for a good even spread of daylight from the monitor lights which is not affected by the building's orientation. They can be constructed with light long span girders that support the monitor frames, or a precast concrete portal frame.
Long span archLong span arches are entirely self-supporting, with no trusses, frames, support posts, or purlins. They are also known as shell roofs. They are a structural curved skin covering a given plan shape and area where the forces in the shell or membrane are compressive and in the restraining edge beams are tensile.
Suspension structuresSuspended structures are those where the main elements that support the load, such as wires, cables, chains, and so on, are subject only to extension forces. Plane (horizontal) structures use a wire fastened to supports from which are suspended elements that take the local stress. These are used mainly in bridges and roofs.
Cable stayed structuresThis is a structural system derived from bridge building, where a flat roof structure is supported from above by steel cables radiating downward from masts that rise above roof level. The cables behave as simple suspension elements, while the roof structure behaves like a normal load-resisting unit, subject to moments, shears and other kinds of action effect. Even under wind uplift, due to the dead weight of the roof, it is expected that the suspending elements remain in tension.
Pre-engineered steel building is very simple and economical with the necessary Architectural, Engineering and Construction with pre-engineered steel buildings.
PEB(Pre-Engineered Building) ROOF
We will reproduce the diagram with just the key words: frames, columns, roof beams, purlins girts, roof system and wall system.
PEB(Pre-Engineered Building)Pre-engineered steel building is very simple and economical with the necessary Architectural, Engineering and Construction with pre-engineered steel buildings. The Pre-engineered steel structures are designed for resistant to moisture, adverse weather conditions, earthquakes, termites and fire that provide you with lifelong durability, safety and very low cost-maintenance.
Saving of material on low stress area of the primary framing members makes Pre-engineered Buildings more economical than conventional steel buildings especially for low rise buildings spanning up to 60.0 meters with eave heights up to 30.0 meters. Furthermore, Pre-engineered Building system focuses on using pre-designed connections and pre-determined material stock to design and fabricate the building structures, thus significantly reduces the time for design, fabrication and installation.
Pre-engineered Buildings can be fitted with different structural accessories including mezzanine floors, crane runway beams, roof platform, catwalk and aesthetic features such as canopies, fascia’s, interior partitions etc. The buildings are made water proof by use of standing seam roof system, roof drainage components and trims. This is a very versatile building system and can be furnished internally to serve any functions, and accessorized externally to achieve unique and aesthetically pleasing architecture designs, making it ideal for application such as factories, warehouses, workshops, showrooms, supermarket etc.
Advantages of PEB(Pre-Engineered Building)
- Ability to span long distance
There are not many other types of gabled structures than can span 100 ft or more in a cost-effective manner.
- Reduced Construction Time
Use of standard accessories greatly increases the speed of production & erection. It can reduce total construction time on a project by at least 50%. This will allow faster occupancy and earlier realization of revenue.
- Cost efficiency
Each structural member is designed for near-total efficiency, minimizing waste of material. Less labour and less material translate into lower cost. The estimates of this cost efficiency vary, but it is commonly assumed that pre-engineered buildings are 10 to 20 percent less expensive than conventional ones.
- Flexibility of expansion
Metal buildings are relatively easy to expand by lengthening, which involves disassembling bolted connections in the end wall, removing the wall, and installing an additional clear-spanning frame in its place. The removed end wall framing can often be reused in the new location. Matching roof and wall panels are then added to complete the expanded building envelope.
- Low maintenance
A typical metal building system, with prefinished metal panels and standing seam roof, is easy to maintain: metal surfaces are easy to clean, and the modern metal finishes offer a superb resistance against corrosion, fading, and discoloration
- Quality Control
As buildings are manufactured completely in the factory under controlled conditions, the quality is assured.
- Architectural Versatility
Buildings can be supplied with various types of fascias, canopies, and curved eaves and designed to receive pre-cast concrete wall panels, curtain walls, block walls and other wall systems.
Why Pre-Engineered Building?Our clients often ask us why we recommend a pre-engineered metal building system for certain applications. The best way to answer is to briefly educate our clients about what a pre-engineered metal building system is and why it is the best fit for certain projects.
The pre-engineered metal building system is a building enclosure system that always includes a structural system and often includes roof and wall cladding. The general idea of the system is represented in the diagram below. The structural system consists of rigid frames that are fabricated from plate steel and “cold formed” into an “I” shape through a manufacturing process. These rigid frames consist of roof beams and columns that are field bolted together. These frames can span large distances without intermediate supporting columns. The frames are spaced at intervals between 15’ and 60’ and can span, column-free, up to 300’ across a building.
On top of and running perpendicular to these frames are roof secondary structural spanning members often referred to as purlins. They are spaced 4’ to 5’ apart across the width of a building. The roofing system attaches to the purlins. The wall systems include wall secondary structural members called girts that also span from frame to frame. Girts support a wall cladding system (frequently metal panel.)
The pre-engineered metal building system is advantageous because it very economically allows for the creation of large column-free enclosures. The alternative structural framing choices, such as mill steel and light gauge metal, use more steel and are therefore considerably more expensive to build. The best applications for the pre-engineered metal building system include industrial applications such as complex industrial facilities, warehouses and distribution centers. The system is also used in retail stores, shopping mall, motels, auto dealerships, office complexes, airplane hangars, sports and entertainment arenas as well as schools, libraries, churches, medical facilities and government buildings.
There are those who still believe that metal buildings are selected from a catalog of standard designs based on the size of the building. In fact the buildings are custom-engineered to specific dimensions, structural criteria and materials in accordance with local building codes. The pre-engineered metal building system has evolved over the years into assemblages of structural elements that work together to provide a very efficient system. Each part of the system is designed to precisely fit together which transforms into buildings that can be built with greater speed and accuracy than is possible using conventional methods. Additionally, systems construction offers significant cost and performance advantages over conventional construction methods including lower life cycle costs for greater return on investment, unlimited design flexibility and sustainability attributes such as 100% recycled steel and superior thermal building envelopes.
Steel is one of the strongest building materials available today, and can withstand extreme weather conditions including high winds, severe snow storms, hurricanes, and even earthquakes.
When you choose a steel building systems structure, you are building for a sustainable tomorrow!“A typical 2000-square-foot home requires about 40 to 50 trees, about an acre’s worth. With steel, only the equivalent of about six scrapped automobiles is needed.”
SteelIs one of the strongest building materials available today, and can withstand extreme weather conditions including high winds, severe snow storms, hurricanes, and even earthquakes. Steel is also not susceptible to termites, creeping, cracks, splitting, rotting, and fire.
Steel Building Systems Advantages
- Shorter Construction Time
It typically takes less time to construct a steel building systems structure than other building types. 10,000 square ft commercial structures can be completed in just 10Days, etc.
- Lower Construction Costs
Cost of assembly is significantly reduced because the components are cut and prepped in-plant, using automation. Your construction costs may be reduced by 60%.
- Ease of Expansion
Steel building systems have a dynamic design, which can be modified quickly and economically before, during, and after the building is completed, to accommodate all types of expansion. Your building can grow at the same rate as your structural requirements.
- Durability and Weather Resistance
Steel can withstand extreme weather conditions including high winds, severe snow, storms, hurricanes, and even earthquakes. Steel is also not susceptible to termites, creeping, cracks, splitting, rotting, and fire.
- Highly Efficient Material-Utilization
Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes are used to fabricate structural members with high strength-to-weight ratio, minimizing raw material costs and waste. Steel itself has the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any construction material, at about 25 times greater than wood (steel frames are actually lighter).
- Minimal Maintenance
Steel building systems require little to no maintenance, and their surfaces are easy to clean with soap and water.
- Attractive Finish
Steel buildings can be finished with the same exterior coverings that structures made of any other building material.Choose any of the traditional finishes, or use a set of wall and roofing panels with an aesthetic colour and surface-texture combination.
- Sustainability: Building Green with Steel
Steel building systems structure for your construction project will guarantee that you are making an environmentally responsible decision.
- Environmental Benefits of Building with Steel
- Material recycled and 100% recyclable
- Highly efficient use of materials
- Long life cycles - metal building systems structures last a long time
- Most steel products don’t release pollutants (like some treated wood products) – be sure to ask your manufacturer if they use environmentally friendly paint and coatings
- Reduced heat island effect: buildings featuring cool metal roofing reduce impact on microclimate and habitat
- Energy efficient – steel buildings heat and cooling loss statistics (especially around doors, windows, foundation, and roofing) are significantly lower than other types of construction